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    A field experiment on field vegetables was set-up at the ARSAC Experimental Station (Contrada Casello, Cosenza, Italy) by establishing a 2-yr crop rotation between: durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) and eggplant (Solanum melongena Mill.). The crop rotation is being performed both in space and in time, thus each crop is present every year.

    The three treatments are displaced as following:

    1) INT

    TILLAGE: conventional tillage (annual ploughing 30 dcm depth)

    COVER CROPS: no cover crops are grown;

    WEED CONTROL: herbicide application in pre-transplanting/pre-sowing and post-transplanting/pre-emergence/post-emergence;

    FERTILIZATION: mineral fertilization

    PLANT PROTECTION: IPM strategies based on biocontrol agents, fungicides and insecticides;

    2) ORG

    TILLAGE: conventional tillage (annual ploughing 30 dcm depth)

    COVER CROPS: subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) broadcast interseeded in durum wheat at sowing time. The clover dies after underground dissemination at wheat harvest time and its seeds germinate in the fall in wheat straw. The clover is kept growing until the next spring, when it is ploughed down as green manure before eggplant transplant.

    WEED CONTROL: preventive (living mulch, residual effect of green manure, stale seedbed technique), physical (plastic mulch in eggplant);

    FERTILIZATION: organic fertilizers

    PLANT PROTECTION: IPM strategies based on biocontrol agents, biofungicides and bioinsecticides;

    3) ORG+

    TILLAGE: minimum tillage for wheat (shallow harrowing), no-tillage for eggplant;

    COVER CROPS: subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) broadcast interseeded in durum wheat at sowing time. The clover dies after underground dissemination at wheat harvest time and its seeds germinate in the fall in wheat straw. The clover is kept growing until the next spring, when it is mowed before eggplant transplant in order to provide a dead mulch.

    WEED CONTROL: preventive (living mulch, dead mulch, stale seedbed technique);

    FERTILIZATION: organic fertilizers

    PLANT PROTECTION: IPM strategies based on biocontrol agents, biofungicides and bioinsecticides;

    IMG 6095
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