Bologna content

BOLOGNA

A new plantation of 3-yr old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. Gala) has been established in 2013 at the experimental farm in Cadriano (Bologna) with a planting density of 1×3.5 m. The orchard was then split in 9 plots 10.5 m wide x 20 m long. Each plot consists of 3 rows of plants. The orchard is drip irrigated and equipped with anti-hail nets with also shading function aimed at reducing water consumption.

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The three treatments are displaced as following:

1) INT

TILLAGE: Inter-row soil cultivation by harrows and rotary hoes;

COVER CROPS: no cover crops are grown;

WEED CONTROL: inter-row mowing, intra-row herbicide application;

FERTILIZATION:

PLANT PROTECTION: IPM strategies based on biocontrol agents, fungicides and insecticides;

2) ORG

TILLAGE: Inter-row soil cultivation by harrows and rotary hoes;

COVER CROPS: field pea (Pisum sativum L.) – white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) – rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) mixture grown as winter green manure and incorporated into the soil in spring;

WEED CONTROL: preventive (residual effect of green manure), mechanical (shredding) and physical (intra-row flaming);

FERTILIZATION:

PLANT PROTECTION: IPM strategies based on biocontrol agents, biofungicides and bioinsecticides;

3) ORG+

TILLAGE: no-tillage;

COVER CROPS: permanent soil cover by mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) – ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – red fescue (Festuca rubra L.);

WEED CONTROL: preventive (suppression effect by the cover crops) and mechanical (shredding combined with intra-row mulching with shredding residues);

FERTILIZATION:

PLANT PROTECTION: IPM strategies based on biocontrol agents, biofungicides and bioinsecticides;